Space weather

Solar wind speed Solar wind magnetic fields Noon 10.7cm radio flux
Bt Bz

Update

Update

Update
EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-19 14.59 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4003
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0015 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 20 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CANCEL WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-01-19 14.59 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Cancel Serial Number: 1630
Original Issue Time: 2022 Jan 19 0131 UTC

Comment: Please disregard this K5 Warning. There is currently no K5 Warning in effect.

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-01-19 14.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1629
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0130 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 20 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-01-19 05.50 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1628
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0130 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 19 1300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-19 05.50 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4002
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0015 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 19 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-01-19 04.59 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3187
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 16 1445 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4361 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-01-19 04.05 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 19 0404 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Issued: 2022-01-19 03.10 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 19 0259 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: 2022-01-19 02.57 UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0255 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 19 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-01-19 01.54 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 19 0152 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-01-19 01.31 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0130 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 19 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-01-19 01.13 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 19 0113 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-19 00.15 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 19 0015 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 19 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-01-18 18.10 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 18 1741 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-01-18 18.03 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 18 1731 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 143 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-01-18 10.11 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3186
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 16 1445 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2022 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-18 08.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4000
Valid From: 2022 Jan 18 0035 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 18 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-01-18 01.09 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 18 0108 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-01-18 00.46 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 18 0040 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-01-18 00.43 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 18 0043 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 18 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-18 00.34 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 18 0035 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 18 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-01-17 10.28 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3185
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 16 1445 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2284 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-01-16 20.28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 16 2023 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-16 20.19 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 16 2219 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 17 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-01-16 15.35 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 16 1445 UTC
Station: GOES-16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-16 11.56 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3997
Valid From: 2022 Jan 15 1920 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 16 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-01-15 22.36 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 15 2235 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-01-15 22.06 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 15 2206 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 16 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-01-15 19.26 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 15 1924 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-15 19.20 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 15 1920 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 16 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-01-15 03.03 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 15 0259 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Issued: 2022-01-15 00.01 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 14 2358 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: 2022-01-14 23.03 UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 14 2300 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 15 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-01-14 22.46 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 14 2246 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-01-14 22.28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 14 2229 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 15 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-01-14 20.39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 14 2038 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-14 20.31 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 14 2030 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 15 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: 2022-01-13 14.38 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jan 14: None (Below G1) Jan 15: G1 (Minor) Jan 16: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: 2022-01-12 16.26 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jan 13: None (Below G1) Jan 14: None (Below G1) Jan 15: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-01-12 05.08 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 12 0426 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 535 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-01-10 00.43 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 09 2252 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 575 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-01-10 00.43 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Jan 09 2221 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-09 08.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3994
Valid From: 2022 Jan 08 2012 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 09 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-08 23.43 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3993
Valid From: 2022 Jan 08 2012 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 09 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-01-08 23.42 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1623
Valid From: 2022 Jan 08 2022 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 09 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-01-08 23.40 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 08 2335 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-01-08 20.35 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 08 2028 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-01-08 20.23 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 08 2022 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 08 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-01-08 20.20 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 08 2008 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-08 20.12 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 08 2012 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 09 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-01-08 13.10 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 08 1245 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-03 08.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3991
Valid From: 2022 Jan 02 2228 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Jan 03 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-01-03 05.09 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 03 0505 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-02 22.28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 02 2228 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 03 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-01-01 04.39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Jan 01 0435 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-01-01 04.16 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Jan 01 0415 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Jan 01 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2021-12-27 12.58 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2021 Dec 27 1257 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2021-12-27 12.47 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Dec 27 1248 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Dec 27 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2021-12-27 11.44 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3182
Begin Time: 2021 Dec 22 1705 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2083 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2021-12-26 11.40 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3181
Begin Time: 2021 Dec 22 1705 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1352 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2021-12-25 14.51 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3180
Begin Time: 2021 Dec 22 1705 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2018 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2021-12-24 09.05 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3179
Begin Time: 2021 Dec 22 1705 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2411 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2021-12-23 05.45 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3178
Begin Time: 2021 Dec 22 1705 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1190 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: 2021-12-22 19.32 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Dec 23: None (Below G1) Dec 24: G1 (Minor) Dec 25: None (Below G1)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2021-12-22 17.32 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2021 Dec 22 1705 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2021-12-22 14.27 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Dec 22 1425 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Dec 22 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2021-12-22 07.37 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2021 Dec 22 0708 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 881 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

CANCEL ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 2021-12-21 07.13 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Cancel Serial Number: 557
Original Issue Time: 2021 Dec 21 0640 UTC

Comment: Incorrect radio sweep type issued by observatory.

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 2021-12-21 06.40 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2021 Dec 21 0508 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2021-12-21 04.37 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3986
Valid From: 2021 Dec 21 0206 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2021 Dec 21 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2021-12-21 02.18 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2021 Dec 21 0218 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2021-12-21 02.15 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2021 Dec 21 0206 UTC
Valid To: 2021 Dec 21 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

Table

Date Radio flux 10.7 cm SESC Sunspot number Sunspot area 10E-6 New regions GOES15 X-ray Bkgd flux Flares
X-ray Optical
C M X S 1 2 3
Dec 20, 2021 123 115 430 1 * 13 1 0 9 1 0 0
Dec 21, 2021 137 147 600 3 * 11 2 0 5 1 0 0
Dec 22, 2021 140 137 730 2 * 10 1 0 7 2 0 0
Dec 23, 2021 130 143 800 0 * 15 0 0 12 0 0 0
Dec 24, 2021 126 145 950 0 * 13 0 0 8 2 0 0
Dec 25, 2021 131 117 850 1 * 12 0 0 7 0 0 0
Dec 26, 2021 125 95 750 1 * 8 0 0 1 0 0 0
Dec 27, 2021 124 85 740 0 * 8 0 0 1 0 0 0
Dec 28, 2021 121 107 860 1 * 6 2 0 8 0 0 0
Dec 29, 2021 111 79 670 0 * 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
Dec 30, 2021 102 77 1050 0 * 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
Dec 31, 2021 102 53 480 1 * 5 0 0 2 0 0 0
Jan 1, 2022 94 52 440 1 * 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Jan 2, 2022 89 25 340 0 * 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jan 3, 2022 84 12 140 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jan 4, 2022 86 12 30 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jan 5, 2022 84 24 270 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jan 6, 2022 94 35 270 0 * 1 0 0 6 0 0 0
Jan 7, 2022 107 38 530 0 * 2 0 0 3 0 0 0
Jan 8, 2022 102 31 530 0 * 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Jan 9, 2022 102 36 540 2 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jan 10, 2022 102 38 530 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jan 11, 2022 100 51 560 0 * 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
Jan 12, 2022 103 68 590 1 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jan 13, 2022 106 111 680 3 * 3 0 0 1 0 0 0
Jan 14, 2022 110 112 580 0 * 4 1 0 1 1 0 0
Jan 15, 2022 116 120 830 1 * 5 0 0 0 0 0 1
Jan 16, 2022 116 103 660 1 * 3 0 0 2 0 0 0
Jan 17, 2022 114 99 580 0 * 3 0 0 1 0 0 0
Jan 18, 2022 115 59 600 0 * 2 1 0 2 0 0 0
Jan 1, 1970
Average/Total 106 75 568 21 128 9 0 83 7 0 1

Summary graph

Flares

Solar wind

Solar Wind

The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.

The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×10e6 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×10e5 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity. Often called the F10.7 index, it is one of the longest running records of solar activity. The F10.7 radio emissions originates high in the chromosphere and low in the corona of the solar atmosphere. The F10.7 correlates well with the sunspot number as well as a number of UltraViolet (UV) and visible solar irradiance records. Reported in “solar flux units”, (s.f.u.), the F10.7 can vary from below 50 s.f.u., to above 300 s.f.u., over the course of a solar cycle.

Flares

Flares

A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 10e25 joules of energy. They are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection. The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.

Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvin, while the electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established.

The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.

Classification

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square metre, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometre X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft.

Classification Peak Flux Range at 100-800 picometer
W/m2
A < 10e-7
B 10e-7 to 10e-6
C 10e-6 to 10e-5
M 10e-5 to 10e-4
X 10e-4 to 10e-3
Z > 10e-3

An earlier flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below. (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)

Classification Corrected area
(millionths of hemisphere)
S < 100
1 100 - 250
2 250 - 600
3 600 - 1200
4 > 1200

Sunspot number

Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere. Sunspots usually appear in pairs, with pair members of opposite magnetic polarity. The number of sunspots varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.

Sunspot populations quickly rise and more slowly fall on an irregular cycle of 11 years, although significant variations in the number of sunspots attending the 11-year period are known over longer spans of time. For example, from 1900 to the 1960s, the solar maxima trend of sunspot count has been upward; from the 1960s to the present, it has diminished somewhat. Over the last decades the Sun has had a markedly high average level of sunspot activity; it was last similarly active over 8,000 years ago.

The number of sunspots correlates with the intensity of solar radiation over the period since 1979, when satellite measurements of absolute radiative flux became available. Since sunspots are darker than the surrounding photosphere it might be expected that more sunspots would lead to less solar radiation and a decreased solar constant. However, the surrounding margins of sunspots are brighter than the average, and so are hotter; overall, more sunspots increase the Sun's solar constant or brightness. The variation caused by the sunspot cycle to solar output is relatively small, on the order of 0.1% of the solar constant (a peak-to-trough range of 1.3 W/m2 compared to 1366 W/m2 for the average solar constant).

K-indices



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6 5 4 3 3 2



Data


Estimated Planetary

Estimated Planetary

Date A K-indices (UTC)
0h 3h 6h 9h 12h 15h 18h 21h
Dec 21, 2021 10 4 2 2 1 2 2 3 1
Dec 22, 2021 11 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 1
Dec 23, 2021 4 2 1 0 1 0 1 2 1
Dec 24, 2021 5 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2
Dec 25, 2021 7 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 1
Dec 26, 2021 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
Dec 27, 2021 10 2 1 2 2 4 3 2 1
Dec 28, 2021 9 2 3 3 2 1 3 2 1
Dec 29, 2021 7 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 3
Dec 30, 2021 8 3 2 1 3 2 1 2 1
Dec 31, 2021 4 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
Jan 1, 2022 11 2 4 3 2 2 3 3 2
Jan 2, 2022 10 3 2 1 2 1 3 2 3
Jan 3, 2022 12 2 4 4 3 2 2 1 2
Jan 4, 2022 6 3 3 1 2 1 0 0 1
Jan 5, 2022 3 1 2 0 0 1 2 0 0
Jan 6, 2022 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Jan 7, 2022 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jan 8, 2022 14 0 0 1 1 1 2 5 5
Jan 9, 2022 10 3 3 2 1 2 1 2 3
Jan 10, 2022 6 3 2 1 0 1 2 2 2
Jan 11, 2022 5 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 0
Jan 12, 2022 4 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
Jan 13, 2022 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
Jan 14, 2022 15 0 0 1 1 1 3 4 6
Jan 15, 2022 22 5 3 3 2 3 3 4 5
Jan 16, 2022 19 5 3 3 2 3 3 4 3
Jan 17, 2022 9 3 1 1 2 3 3 2 2
Jan 18, 2022 18 5 3 3 2 3 3 3 3
Jan 19, 2022 25 6 5 4 3 3 2

Middle Latitude

Date A K-indices
Dec 21, 2021 7 3 1 2 2 2 2 2 1
Dec 22, 2021 8 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 0
Dec 23, 2021 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
Dec 24, 2021 3 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1
Dec 25, 2021 5 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 0
Dec 26, 2021 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Dec 27, 2021 8 1 1 2 2 3 3 2 1
Dec 28, 2021 6 1 2 3 2 1 2 1 1
Dec 29, 2021 5 1 2 0 1 2 2 2 2
Dec 30, 2021 7 3 1 1 3 2 1 1 1
Dec 31, 2021 2 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
Jan 1, 2022 9 2 3 3 2 1 2 2 2
Jan 2, 2022 7 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 3
Jan 3, 2022 9 1 3 3 3 2 2 1 1
Jan 4, 2022 5 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 0
Jan 5, 2022 3 0 2 0 1 1 2 1 0
Jan 6, 2022 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 0
Jan 7, 2022 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0
Jan 8, 2022 9 0 0 1 1 2 2 4 4
Jan 9, 2022 7 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2
Jan 10, 2022 4 3 2 0 0 1 1 1 1
Jan 11, 2022 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 0
Jan 12, 2022 3 0 1 0 0 2 2 2 1
Jan 13, 2022 3 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 1
Jan 14, 2022 10 0 0 1 1 2 3 2 5
Jan 15, 2022 17 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 4
Jan 16, 2022 16 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3
Jan 17, 2022 6 3 0 1 2 2 2 1 2
Jan 18, 2022 12 4 3 2 2 2 3 2 2
Jan 19, 2022 5 3 4 2 2 2

High Latitude

Date A K-indices
Dec 21, 2021 14 3 2 2 1 5 3 3 0
Dec 22, 2021 14 1 1 3 3 5 3 2 2
Dec 23, 2021 5 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1
Dec 24, 2021 3 0 0 0 3 1 1 1 1
Dec 25, 2021 16 2 0 4 5 4 3 1 1
Dec 26, 2021 2 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0
Dec 27, 2021 14 0 0 2 3 6 2 1 1
Dec 28, 2021 18 0 4 5 4 4 3 1 0
Dec 29, 2021 8 0 2 1 4 3 2 1 1
Dec 30, 2021 10 1 0 0 5 3 2 1 1
Dec 31, 2021 5 0 0 0 2 3 3 0 1
Jan 1, 2022 10 0 3 3 3 3 2 2 1
Jan 2, 2022 7 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 2
Jan 3, 2022 14 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1
Jan 4, 2022 5 1 2 1 3 3 0 0 0
Jan 5, 2022 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
Jan 6, 2022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jan 7, 2022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jan 8, 2022 4 0 0 1 0 2 1 3 2
Jan 9, 2022 12 4 2 2 2 4 2 2 1
Jan 10, 2022 2 1 1 0 0 2 0 1 1
Jan 11, 2022 3 0 1 2 0 2 2 1 0
Jan 12, 2022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jan 13, 2022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jan 14, 2022 8 0 0 1 0 2 3 4 3
Jan 15, 2022 36 4 3 2 4 6 6 4 4
Jan 16, 2022 35 4 3 2 4 6 6 4 3
Jan 17, 2022 13 3 1 1 3 4 4 2 2
Jan 18, 2022 24 4 2 5 4 4 4 3 3
Jan 19, 2022 5 5 3 4 5 1

About

The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval. The label K comes from the German word Kennziffer meaning “characteristic digit”. The K-index was introduced by Julius Bartels in 1938.

The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers:

  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Meanook, Canada
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • Hartland, UK
  • Wingst, Germany
  • Niemegk, Germany
  • Canberra, Australia

These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), the British Geological Survey, the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and Geoscience Australia. Important magnetometer observations are also contributed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the Korean Space Weather Center K-index Watches are issued when the highest predicted NOAA estimated Kp-indices for a day are K = 5, 6, 7, or >= 8 and is reported in terms of the NOAA G scale. K-index Warnings are issued when NOAA estimated Kp-indices of 4, 5, 6, and 7 or greater are expected. K-index Alerts are issued when the NOAA estimated Kp-indices reach 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.


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